A Scoping Review on the Status of Female Breast Cancer in Asia with a Special Focus on Nepal

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This study aimed to provide updated evidence on the status of female breast cancer and cancer treatment facilities in Asia, with a special focus on Nepal. This review used search phrases that included, breast neoplasm or cancer, health status, epidemiology, breast cancer survivors, cancer care facilities, Asia, Nepal. Researchers examined databases from January 2011 to December 2020 (PubMed, PMC, Google Scholar, and the reference lists of included papers). Studies of any design and reviews, were included in the study, except for qualitative studies. The study findings are presented in a narrative synthesis format using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses Extension for Scoping Reviews. An initial search resulted in 974 papers, and 896 were reviewed after being checked for duplication using the Zotero software. Accordingly, utilizing the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 188 publications were selected, and after review of titles and abstracts, an additional 98 papers were removed for different reasons. Finally, the study looked at 90 female breast cancer papers. Results showed that the number of cases of breast cancer is growing all around the world, including in Asia and Nepal. Age, early menarche, late menopause, nulliparity, positive family history, excessive fat consumption, alcohol, and smoking are all frequent risk factors for breast cancer found in Asian women. Breast self-examination, clinical breast examination, and mammography screening are common methods for detecting breast carcinoma. Chemotherapy, radiation, and modified mastectomy are commonly used options for treatment. The number of breast cancer survivors is growing throughout the world, indicating better clinical care. There is a paucity of survival data in many Asian countries, including Nepal. There is also a scarcity of health workforce specialized in cancer care and treatment, as well as a few health facilities that are available to treat cancer cases in many Asian countries, including Nepal.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)229-246
Number of pages18
JournalBreast Cancer: Targets and Therapy
Publication statusPublished - 2022


  • accessibility to cancer care
  • cancer survivors
  • epidemiology
  • incidence
  • Nepal
  • risk factors
  • treatment


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