Vitamin D related research continues to expand and theorise regarding its involvement in obesity, as both hypovitaminosis D and obesity strike in pandemic proportions. Vitamin D plays an important role in immune system through Vitamin D Receptors (VDR), which are transcription factors located abundantly in the body. Due to this characteristic, it is potentially linked to obesity, which is a state of inflammation involving the release of cytokines from adipose tissue, and exerting stress on other organs in a state of positive energy balance. Research trials in the past couple of years and systematic reviews from SCOPUS and MEDLINE will be discussed. The role of Vitamin D throughout the lifespan (from fetal imprinting until older age), and in various other obesity mediated chronic conditions shall be highlighted. Various mechanisms attributed to the inverse relationship of Vitamin D and obesity are discussed with research gaps identified, particularly the role of adipokines, epigenetics, calcium and type of adipose tissue.