Appropriateness of perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis in two Italian hospitals: a pilot study

A. Quattrocchi, M. Barchitta, A. Maugeri, G. Basile, A. R. Mattaliano, R. Palermo, A. Grandi, R. Canino, L. Faccini, A. Agodi, C. Pasquarella

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BACKGROUND: Appropriate perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis has been shown to be an effective measure for preventing surgical site infections and to avoid complications including increased antimicrobial resistance. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the appropriateness of perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis in two Italian hospitals. STUDY DESIGN: In 2016 a survey was prospectively carried out at two hospitals (identified as A and B) and all patients who underwent a surgical operation were enrolled. METHODS: For each patient, perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis data were collected and appropriateness of perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis was assessed according to the national guidelines (SNLG-17, 2011). RESULTS: During the study period, 107 and 467 operations were included. Compliance to perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis according to indication was 72.3% (hospital A) and 77.9% (hospital B). Perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis was administered <60 min before the skin incision in 89.1% of surgical procedures in hospital A and in 78.4% in hospital B. In hospital A, the recommended molecule of antibiotic was correctly administered in 87.8% of surgeries (n= 36), while, in hospital B, the antibiotic was correctly administered only in 9.8% of surgeries. Antibiotic prophylaxis was not extended postoperatively or did not exceed 24 hours after the end of the surgery in 99% and 8.9% of the procedures in hospital A and B, respectively. CONCLUSION: Our study found an overall low compliance to perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis mainly regarding antibiotic choice and total duration of prophylaxis. The Italian Study Group of Hospital Hygiene - Italian Society of Hygiene, Preventive Medicine and Public Health, together with the National Association of Hospital Physician, promoted the implementation of the project "Choosing wisely - Hospital Hygiene", and, among the list of the 5 procedures with the highest evidence of inappropriateness, the timing and the duration of administration of perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis have been included and a multicenter study has been launched to evaluate the appropriateness of perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis components in all the participating Italian hospitals.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)36-44
Number of pages9
JournalAnnali di igiene : medicina preventiva e di comunita
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sep 2018
Externally publishedYes


  • Antibiotic prophylaxis
  • Compliance
  • Surgical site infections
  • Surveillance


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