Article european clinical neuropsychology: Role in healthcare and access to neuropsychological services

Erich Kasten, Fernando Barbosa, Mary H. Kosmidis, Bengt A. Persson, Marios Constantinou, Gus A. Baker, Sandra Lettner, Laura Hokkanen, Amélie Ponchel, Sara Mondini, Maria K. Jonsdottir, Nataliya Varako, Tomas Nikolai, Aiste Pranckeviciene, Lauren Harper, Erik Hessen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This study analyzed aspects of the work of clinical neuropsychologists across Europe. There are no published comparisons between European countries regarding the nature of clinical neuropsychologists’ work. Forty-one national psychological and neuropsychological societies were approached, of which 31 (76%) responded. Data from seven countries with less than 10 neuropsy-chologists were excluded. A license is required to practice clinical neuropsychology in 50% of the countries. Clinical neuropsychologists work independently in 62.5%. Diagnostic/assessment work is the most frequently reported activity (54%). Most neuropsychologists work in public hospitals, followed by health centers. Adult neuropsychology was the most frequent area of activity. Services in public institutions are covered by public entities (45.8%), or by a combination of patient funds and public entities (29.2%) and only 4.2% by the patient; whereas services in private institutions are covered by the patient (26.1%) and the combination of patient, public entities (21.7%) or patient and private entities (17.4%). The data suggest that the number of neuropsychologists working across European countries is considerably low in comparison to other medical professionals. The results of the survey identified similar aspects of neuropsychologists’ work, despite variations in terms of reimbursement and mechanisms, reflecting economic and healthcare differences. Estimates on the number of clinical neuropsychologists suggest insufficient access to neuropsychological services.

Original languageEnglish
Article number734
JournalHealthcare (Switzerland)
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • Clinical neuropsychology
  • European study
  • Healthcare
  • Working conditions


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