Association between gout and the development of Parkinson’s disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Asra Fazlollahi, Mahdi Zahmatyar, Hossein Alizadeh, Maryam Noori, Nasrin Jafari, Seyed Aria Nejadghaderi, Mark J.M. Sullman, Koroush Gharagozli, Ali Asghar Kolahi, Saeid Safiri

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: As a natural antioxidant, uric acid plays a protective role against neurodegenerative disorders, including Parkinson’s disease (PD). Therefore, the risk of PD has been found to be lower in people with hyperuricemia. In this article, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate whether gout affects the future risk of developing PD. Methods: We searched PubMed, Scopus, the Web of Science, and Google Scholar to find relevant studies, up to March 16, 2022. Studies investigating the risk of PD, following a gout diagnosis, were included if they were cross-sectional, case–control or cohort studies. The Newcastle Ottawa Scale (NOS) checklist was used to assess the quality of all included studies. The meta-analysis was performed using STATA 17.0. Results: Ten studies were included, which were comprised of three case-controls, six cohort studies and one nested case–control study. We found no significant association between gout and the risk of PD among both sexes (RR = 0.94, 95% CI: 0.86–1.04), although the association was significant for females (RR = 1.09; 95% CI: 1.02–1.17). Subgroup analysis also showed no significant findings by age group, whether they were receiving treatment for gout, study design, quality assessment score, and method of gout ascertainment. In contrast, the studies that defined PD according to the use of drugs showed significant results (RR = 0.82; 95% CI: 0.76–0.89). There was a significant publication bias on the association between gout and PD. Conclusions: The presence of gout had no significant effect on the risk of subsequently developing PD. Further analyses are recommended to investigate the effects of demographic and behavioral risk factors.

Original languageEnglish
Article number383
JournalBMC Neurology
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2022


  • Gout
  • Hyperuricemia
  • Meta-analysis
  • Parkinson's disease
  • Systematic review
  • Uric acid


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