Association of Vitamin D with adiposity measures and other determinants in a cross-sectional study of Cypriot adolescents

Ourania Kolokotroni, Anna Papadopoulou, Panayiotis K. Yiallouros, Vasilios Raftopoulos, Christiana Kouta, Demetris Lamnisos, Polyxeni Nicolaidou, Nicos Middleton

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Abstract

Objective To assess vitamin D status among Cypriot adolescents and investigate potential determinants including BMI and body fat percentage (BF%). Design Participants had cross-sectional assessments of serum vitamin D, physical activity, dietary vitamin D intake and sun exposure. Linear and logistic regression models were used to explore the associations of vitamin D with potential predictors. Setting Hospitals, Cyprus, November 2007-May 2008. Subjects Adolescents (n 671) aged 16-18 years. Results Mean serum vitamin D was 22·90 (sd 6·41) ng/ml. Only one in ten children had sufficient levels of vitamin D (≥30 ng/ml), while the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (12-20 ng/ml) and severe deficiency (<12 ng/ml) was 31·7 % and 4·0 %, respectively. Lower vitamin D was associated with winter and spring season, female gender, reduced sun exposure in winter and darker skin. Participants with highest BMI and BF% when compared with a middle reference group had increased adjusted odds of vitamin D insufficiency (OR = 3·00; 95 % CI 1·21, 7·45 and OR = 5·02; 95 % CI 1·80, 13·97, respectively). A similar pattern, although not as strong, was shown for vitamin D deficiency with BF% (OR = 1·81; 95 % CI 1·04, 3·16) and BMI (OR = 1·51; 95 % CI 0·85, 2·67). Participants in the lowest BMI and BF% groups also displayed compromised vitamin D status, suggesting a U-shaped association. Conclusions Vitamin D deficiency in adolescence is very prevalent in sunny Cyprus, particularly among females, those with darker skin and those with reduced sun exposure in winter. Furthermore, vitamin D status appears to have a U-shaped association with adiposity measures.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)112-121
Number of pages10
JournalPublic Health Nutrition
Volume18
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2015

Keywords

  • Adiposity
  • Adolescents
  • BMI
  • Body fat percentage
  • Predictors
  • Vitamin D

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    Kolokotroni, O., Papadopoulou, A., Yiallouros, P. K., Raftopoulos, V., Kouta, C., Lamnisos, D., Nicolaidou, P., & Middleton, N. (2015). Association of Vitamin D with adiposity measures and other determinants in a cross-sectional study of Cypriot adolescents. Public Health Nutrition, 18(1), 112-121. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1368980013003480