Purpose: The paper aims to describe the effects of caffeine intake on exercise performance as well on diabetes, cirrhosis and asthma. Design/methodology/approach: The review includes the most updated studies found in Pub-Med all of which are in relation to caffeine and exercise performance as well as its effects on disease issues. Findings: The majority of studies show that caffeine ingestion of about 6 mg of body weight mass may have a positive effect on endurance and anaerobic exercise performance. In addition, if it is consumed together with carbohydrates, it may also improve post-recovery glycogen synthesis. Intake of caffeine was also found to have a positive effect on the prevention of liver cirrhosis, reducing asthma attacks and lowering the risk of type 2 diabetes. Originality/value: The paper gives information to nutritionists, clinical dietitians and sports nutritionists on the newest data about the effects of caffeine on exercise performance and disease issues.