Cardiotocography and medicolegal issues

Bode Williams, S. Arulkumaran

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

36 Citations (Scopus)


Obstetric litigation is on the increase. A review of litigation cases reveals that the majority of claims relating to the intrapartum period arise because the cardiotocograph- (CTG) was misinterpreted or because inappropriate action was taken in the presence of fetal heart rate abnormalities. Compulsory education and training in the interpretation of CTGs and in best practice are key factors in minimizing the threat of litigation. Newer methods, such as pulse oximetry or fetal electrocardiogram waveform analysis, can act as adjuncts to CTG and help to avoid birth asphyxia and hence litigation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)457-466
Number of pages10
JournalBest Practice and Research: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2004


  • Cardiotocograph
  • Intrapartum
  • Litigation
  • Obstetrics


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