Malignant melanoma is one of the most aggressive types of skin cancer with an increasing incidence worldwide. Thus, the development of innovative therapeutic approaches is of great importance. Salvia fruticosa (SF) is known for its anticancer properties and in this context, we aimed to investigate its potential anti-melanoma activity in an in vitro model of human malignant melanoma. Cytotoxicity was assessed through a colorimetric-based sulforhodamine-B (SRB) assay in primary malignant melanoma (A375), non-malignant melanoma epidermoid carcinoma (A431) and non-tumorigenic melanocyte neighbouring keratinocyte (HaCaT) cells. Among eight (8) different fractions of S. fruticosa extracts (SF1-SF8) tested, SF3 was found to possess significant cytotoxic activity against A375 cells, while A431 and HaCaT cells remained relatively resistant or exerted no cytotoxicity, respectively. In addition, the total phenolic (Folin–Ciocalteu assay) and total flavonoid content of SF extracts was estimated, whereas the antioxidant capacity was measured via the inhibition of tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation levels. Finally, apoptotic cell death was assessed by utilizing a commercially available kit for the activation of caspases-3,-8 and-9. In conclusion, the anti-melanoma properties of SF3 involve the induction of both extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathway(s), as evidenced by the increased activity levels of caspases-8, and-9, respectively.
- Oxidative stress
- Salvia fruticosa