Computing Paradigms in Emerging Vehicular Environments: A Review

Lion Silva, Naercio Magaia, Breno Sousa, Anna Kobusinska, Antonio Casimiro, Constandinos X. Mavromoustakis, George Mastorakis, Victor Hugo C. De Albuquerque

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Determining how to structure vehicular network environments can be done in various ways. Here, we highlight vehicle networks' evolution from vehicular ad-hoc networks (VANET) to the internet of vehicles (IoVs), listing their benefits and limitations. We also highlight the reasons in adopting wireless technologies, in particular, IEEE 802.11p and 5G vehicle-to-everything, as well as the use of paradigms able to store and analyze a vast amount of data to produce intelligence and their applications in vehicular environments. We also correlate the use of each of these paradigms with the desire to meet existing intelligent transportation systems' requirements. The presentation of each paradigm is given from a historical and logical standpoint. In particular, vehicular fog computing improves on the deficiences of vehicular cloud computing, so both are not exclusive from the application point of view. We also emphasize some security issues that are linked to the characteristics of these paradigms and vehicular networks, showing that they complement each other and share problems and limitations. As these networks still have many opportunities to grow in both concept and application, we finally discuss concepts and technologies that we believe are beneficial. Throughout this work, we emphasize the crucial role of these concepts for the well-being of humanity.

Original languageEnglish
Article number9346073
Pages (from-to)491-511
Number of pages21
JournalIEEE/CAA Journal of Automatica Sinica
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2021


  • cloud
  • Computing paradigm
  • edge
  • fog
  • internet of vehicle (IoV)
  • vehicular networks


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