Five-year trends of second-hand smoke exposure in Greece: A comparison between complete, partial, and prelegislation levels

Constantine I. Vardavas, Nektarios Anagnostopoulos, Evridiki Patelarou, Markos Minas, Chrysanthi Nakou, Vassiliki Dramba, Gianna Giourgouli, Emmanouil Bagkeris, Konstantinos Gourgoulianis, Paraskevi Pattaka, Antonis Antoniadis, Christos Lionis, Monique Bertic, Douglas Dockery, Gregory N. Connolly, Panagiotis K. Behrakis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Our aim was to assess second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure in hospitality venues after the smoke-free legislation implemented in September 2010 in Greece and to compare with when a partial ban was in place and in 2006 when no ban was in place. Methods: Hospitality venues were prospectively assessed for their indoor concentrations of particulate matter (PM 2.5) during the partial ban phase (n=149) and the complete ban phase (n=120, 80% followed up), while overall and matched by venue comparisons were also performed (no ban vs. partial ban vs. complete ban). Comparisons with previously collected data in 2006 when no ban was in place also was performed. Results: Indoor air levels of PM2.5 attributable to SHS dropped following the transition from a partial to a complete ban by 34% (137μg/m3 vs. 90μg/m3, p=0.003). This drop was larger in bars (from 195μg/m3 to 121μg/m3), than in cafes (124μg/m3 vs. 87μg/m3) or restaurants (42μg/m3 vs. 39μg/m3). PM2.5 concentrations between 2006 (no ban) and the partial ban of 2010 were also found to decrease by 94μg/m3; however, among matched venues, the levels of indoor air pollution were not found to change significantly (218μg/m 3 vs. 178μg/m3, p=0.58). Comparing the 2010 complete ban results (n=120) with previously collected data from 2006 when no ban was in place (n=43), overall PM2.5 concentrations were found to fall from 268μg/m3 to 89μg/m3, while a matched analysis found a significant reduction in PM2.5 concentrations (249μg/m 3 vs. 46μg/m3, p=0.011). Conclusion: The complete ban of smoking in hospitality venues in Greece led to a reduction in SHS exposure, in comparison to when the partial ban or no ban was in place; however, exposure to SHS was not eliminated indicating the need for stronger enforcement.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)349-354
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2012


  • occupational exposure
  • passive smoking
  • PM2.5
  • second-hand smoke
  • smoke-free legislation


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