Goal setting and feedback for the development of instructional strategies

George Tzetzis, Efthimios Kioumourtzoglou, George Mavromatis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

16 Citations (Scopus)


This study was done to evaluate the effectiveness of three practice methods, (a) feedback as knowledge of performance (KP), (b) feedback as knowledge of results combined with the goal-setting method, and (c) a combination of knowledge of performance and results with the goal-setting method on the performance and learning of basketball skills of different complexity. Three groups (n = 26) of children followed the practice methods and the performance (result), and technique of simple and complex basketball skills (dribble, pass, shoot, and lay-up) were assessed for their effectiveness. Subjects practiced using four exercises for each skill, three times a week, for eight weeks. A performance and a retention test (two weeks later) were conducted. A multivariate analysis of variance with repeated measures on the last factor indicated that knowledge of performance with results of goal-setting significantly improved the techniques of the more complex skills but it was significantly better than the knowledge of results and goal-setting method for passing. Giving knowledge of results and setting goals improved performance and proved to be better than the knowledge of performance method. Finally, the combined method was as good as the knowledge of performance and as good as the knowledge of results plus goal setting in performance but improvement was delayed mostly for the more complex skills. Attentional needs for the analysis of information given determined the success in skills execution and the effectiveness of the methods. The different content of the information given to the athletes may improve different aspects of motion or execution of the skills.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1411-1427
Number of pages17
JournalPerceptual and Motor Skills
Issue number3 PART II
Publication statusPublished - Jun 1997


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