Increased body mass and depressive symptomatology are associated with hypercholesterolemia, among elderly individuals; Results from the MEDIS study

Stefanos Tyrovolas, Christos Lionis, Akis Zeimbekis, Vassiliki Bountziouka, Mary Micheli, Alexia Katsarou, Natassa Papairakleous, George Metallinos, Kornilia Makri, Evangelos Polychronopoulos, Demosthenes B. Panagiotakos

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Abstract

Background. Hypercholesterolemia is one of the most important factors causing cardiovascular disease (CVD). The aim of the present work was to evaluate the relationships between socio-demographic, clinical, lifestyle and depression status and the presence of hypercholesterolemia, among elderly individuals without known CVD. Methods. During 2005-2007, 1190 elderly (aged 65 to 100 years) men and women (from Cyprus, Mitilini, Samothraki, Cephalonia, Crete, Lemnos, Corfu and Zakynthos) were enrolled. Socio-demographic, clinical and lifestyle factors were assessed through standard procedures. Symptoms of depression were evaluated using the short-form of the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS, range 0-15). Dietary habits were assessed through a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Hypercholesterolemia was defined as total serum cholesterol > 200 mg/dL or use of lipids lowering medication. Results. 44.6% of males and 61.9% of females had hypercholesterolemia (p < 0.001). Only, 63% of hypercholesterolemic participants were under special diet or pharmaceutical treatment. Hypercholisterolemic individuals had higher prevalence of obesity (43% vs. 25%), hypertension (76% vs. 57%) and diabetes (25% vs. 17%) compared with normal participants (p < 0.001). Furthermore, hypercholisterolemic participants showed higher depression levels (p = 0.002). After adjusting for various confounders, GDS score and BMI correlated with 13% (95%CI 0.98-1.30) and 14% (95%CI 0.99-1.31) higher likelihood of having hypercholesterolemia. Conclusion. A considerable proportion of our elderly sample had hypercholesterolemia, while 1/3 of them were untreated. Furthermore, presence of hypercholesterolemia was correlated with depressive symptomatology and increased BMI.

Original languageEnglish
Article number10
JournalLipids in Health and Disease
Volume8
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2009

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    Tyrovolas, S., Lionis, C., Zeimbekis, A., Bountziouka, V., Micheli, M., Katsarou, A., Papairakleous, N., Metallinos, G., Makri, K., Polychronopoulos, E., & Panagiotakos, D. B. (2009). Increased body mass and depressive symptomatology are associated with hypercholesterolemia, among elderly individuals; Results from the MEDIS study. Lipids in Health and Disease, 8, [10]. https://doi.org/10.1186/1476-511X-8-10