Definition: Use of obstetric forceps or ventouse (vacuum) to expedite vaginal delivery of a fetus.
Types: Either of the two instruments, forceps or ventouse, may be chosen for the delivery. The procedures are classiied as (1) midcavity, (2) low and (3) outlet (Table 14.1) .
Incidence: Between 5 and 15% of all vaginal deliveries are assisted by an instrument. Incidence varies depending on population, institution and individuals performing the procedure. In modern obstetrics, use of ventouse has gained popularity as it can be performed with less profound anaesthesia and is associated with lower risk of maternal trauma.
Caesarean section rates are on the rise and this may be partly due to lack of appropriate training and experience in instrumental deliveries as well as medico-legal issues. Since caesarean section performed in the second stage of labour is associated with increased maternal morbidity, an appropriately performed instrumental vaginal delivery may help avoid the unnecessary risks.
|Title of host publication||Obstetric and Intrapartum Emergencies|
|Subtitle of host publication||A Practical Guide to Management|
|Publisher||Cambridge University Press|
|Number of pages||9|
|Publication status||Published - 1 Jan 2012|