A large number of biological, chemical, and dietary factors have been implicated in the development of liver cancer. These involve complex and protracted interactions between genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors. The survival rate for patients diagnosed with late-stage liver cancer is currently low due to the aggressive nature of the disease and resistance to therapy. An increasing body of evidence has offered support for the crucial role of non-coding microRNA (miRNA) in directing hepatic responses to environmental risk factors for liver cancer. In this review we focus on miRNA responses to environmental liver cancer risk factors and their potential biological and clinical significance.