Multigroup invariance of the DAS across a random and an internet-sourced sample

M. J.M. Sullman, A. N. Stephens, J. E. Taylor

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


It is well established that angry and, subsequently, aggressive drivers pose a problem for road safety. Over recent years, there has been an increase in the number of published studies examining driver anger, particularly using the Driving Anger Scale (DAS). The DAS measures six broad types of situations likely to provoke anger while driving (i.e., police presence, illegal driving, discourtesy, traffic obstructions, slower drivers, and hostile gestures). The majority of the recent studies have moved away from traditional paper-and-pencil methodologies, using the internet to collect data, for reasons of convenience. However, it is not yet completely clear whether data obtained from this methodology differs from more traditional methods. While research outside of the driving arena has not found substantial differences, it is important to establish whether this also applies to driving-related research and measures, such as the DAS. The present study used Multigroup Confirmatory Factor Analysis (MGCFA) to investigate the invariance of the DAS across a random sample from the electoral roll (n = 1,081: males = 45%) and an internet sourced sample (n = 627; males = 55%). The MGCFA showed the same six-factor solution was supported in both datasets. The relationships between the DAS factors and age, sex, trait anger, and annual mileage were broadly similar, although more significant differences were identified in the internet sample. This research demonstrates that driving measures administered over the internet produce similar results to those obtained using more traditional methods.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)137-145
Number of pages9
JournalAccident Analysis and Prevention
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2019


  • DAS
  • Driver anger
  • Measurement invariance
  • Multiple group confirmatory factor analysis
  • Online survey
  • Paper-and-pencil survey


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