Non-spinal low back pain: Global epidemiology, trends, and risk factors

Pourya Shokri, Mahdi Zahmatyar, Mahdi Falah Tafti, Mobin Fathy, Mohammadmahdi Rezaei Tolzali, Amir Ghaffari Jolfayi, Seyed Aria Nejadghaderi, Mark J.M. Sullman, Ali Asghar Kolahi, Saeid Safiri

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Background and Aims: Low back pain (LBP) is one of the most debilitating and prevalent disorders. The prevalence of LBP ranges from 30% to 80%, depending on the population, and increases with age. Causes of LBP are typically classified as spinal and non-spinal. The main goal of this study was to investigate the non-spinal causes of LBP, since neglecting these factors leads to increases in the financial, psychological, and physical burden of LBP on individuals as well as on society. Methods: The data were extracted after searching the PubMed database and Google Scholar search engine up to October 27, 2021. We included all studies that were conducted on a human population and assessed the effects of epidemiological, biological, psychological, and sociodemographic factors on the incidence or progression of LBP. Results: The most common causes of non-spinal LBP were diseases such as nephrolithiasis, endometriosis, tumors, fibromyalgia, and conditions like psychological disorders and pregnancy. Nevertheless, the perceived intensity of the pain can be affected by factors such as socioeconomic level, genetics, age, habits, diet, and psychological status. Conclusion: The epidemiology, etiologies, and risk factors associated with LBP should be more clearly recognized to better prevent, diagnose, and treat the underlying disease and to reduce the burden of LBP.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere1533
JournalHealth Science Reports
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2023


  • epidemiology
  • low back pain
  • narrative review
  • risk factor


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