Occurrence of ochratoxin A, fumonisin B2 and black aspergilli in raisins from Western Greece regions in relation to environmental and geographical factors

Giancarlo Perrone, Annalisa De Girolamo, Yiannis Sarigiannis, Miriam Edith Haidukowski, Angelo Visconti

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

28 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The presence of ochratoxin A (OTA), fumonisin B2 (FB2) and black aspergilli in raisins from Western Greece regions (Messinia, Corinthia, Achaia, Ilia and Zante Island) was investigated in relation to the different geographic and climatic conditions in the 2011 growing season. The biseriate species Aspergillus niger "aggregate" and A. carbonarius were mainly identified. The population of A. niger "aggregate" species occurred in all raisin samples at colony-forming units (CFU) concentrations significantly higher (mean 2.2 × 105 CFU g-1 homogenate) than those of A. carbonarius population (mean 4.9 × 103 CFU g-1 homogenate), which occurred in 80% of the raisin samples. OTA was found in 73% of the samples at levels ranging from 0.1 μg kg-1 to 98.2 μg kg-1, with the highest level occurring in a raisin sample from Ilia that also contained the highest level of A. carbonarius. The European Union legal limit for OTA was exceeded in 15% of the raisin samples. FB2 was found in 29% of the raisin samples at levels ranging from 7.1 μg kg-1 to 25.5 μg kg-1, with 20% of the samples co-occurring with OTA. Principal-component analysis was applied to levels of mycotoxins, fungal contamination, geographical data and environmental conditions recorded in the harvesting (August) or drying (September) period. Principal-component analysis clearly indicated a good direct correlation of rainfall and relative humidity with OTA and A. carbonarius contamination. A lack of clustering was observed when A. niger and FB2 contamination were considered. This is the first report on the co-occurrence of the mycotoxins OTA and FB2 in dried vine fruits from Greece.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1339-1347
Number of pages9
JournalFood Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment
Volume30
Issue number7
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2013

Keywords

  • black aspergilli
  • dried vine fruits
  • fumonisins
  • ochratoxin A

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