Organizational Culture in Middle and Upper Level Hotel Units in Greece

Nicos Kartakoullis, Thanos Kriemadis, Michael Koniordos, Stella Leivadi, Christiana Mavromatis, George Karlis, Jacquelyn Oncescu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This study examines the level of awareness of organizational culture (OC) of hotel
managers in middle and upper level Hotel Units (HU) in Greece. A random sample of
140 hotel managers from middle and upper Hotel Units (HU) in Greece were surveyed
using the Organizational Culture Assessment Questionnaire (OCAQ), a 30-item OC
scale developed by Sashkin (1997). The results indicated that the mean values of the
OC factors “managing change”, “achieving goals” and “cultural strength” are considered
as average, while “coordinated teamwork”, “customer orientation” and the total OC score
are considered to be high, when compared to Sashkin (1997) norms. Further results
revealed significant differences only for the “customer orientation” factor. Generally, no
significant differences were found among managers of middle and upper level HU for
general awareness of OC. It is concluded that the results are rather homogenous, with
all HU managers placing more or less the same importance to Sashkin’s five OC factors,
with each HU manager reporting a rather satisfactory organizational culture.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)31-44
JournalInternational Journal of Sport Management, Recreation and Tourism
Issue number1791-874X
Publication statusPublished - 2008

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