Overview of the pathology, repair and strengthening of adobe structures

Rogiros Illampas, Ioannis Ioannou, Dimos C. Charmpis

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

30 Citations (Scopus)


Adobe construction is considered to be an important feature of the international architectural heritage. To achieve the effective preservation of culturally significant adobe structures, the factors that cause their deterioration should be recorded and understood and the result of potential restoration interventions should be evaluated. This study reviews the pathology of adobe structures and the various restoration methods currently in use. Focus is given on the main agents of adobe deterioration and commonly encountered decay mechanisms. The applicability and efficiency of several repair and strengthening techniques currently used in practice or proposed by academic researchers is critically discussed and the gaps that occur in the field of earthen masonry retrofitting are highlighted. An extensive list of references, which reflects the international knowledge and experience on the topic, is also provided.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)165-188
Number of pages24
JournalInternational Journal of Architectural Heritage
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2013


  • adobe structures
  • deterioration
  • earthen architecture
  • rehabilitation
  • repair
  • retrofit
  • structural damage


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