Postoperative hemorrhage is a common complication in cardiac surgery, and it is associated with a considerable increase in morbidity, mortality, and cost. Recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) is an emerging hemostatic agent, increasingly used in cardiac surgery. This article systematically reviews the evidence regarding the efficacy, safety, and cost of rFVIIa in this setting. Although definitive evidence from randomized controlled trials is lacking, the use of rFVIIa in patients experiencing refractory postoperative hemorrhage seems promising and relatively safe. However further research is required to definitively establish its clinical utility in the postoperative cardiac patient.