Student attitude and learning outcomes of multimedia computer-assisted versus traditional instruction in basketball

Nicholas Vernadakis, Eleni Zetou, Efi Tsitskari, Maria Giannousi, Efthimis Kioumourtzoglou

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of multimedia computer-assisted instruction (MCAI), traditional instruction (TI), and combined instruction (CI) methods on learning the skill of shooting in basketball. Additionally, a comparison of the students' attitudes towards the MCAI and TI methods was made. Seventy-five middle school students of seventh and eighth grade were randomly assigned into three teaching method groups: TI, MCAI and CI. Each group received ten 45-min periods of instruction divided into three sections: (a) 5-min introduction, (b) 30-min instructional time and (c) 10-min questions and review. Students took pre-, post-, and retention written test covering techniques and rules of the games. Participants in the CI group also completed a post-test attitude survey towards the MCAI and TI methods. Two-way analysis of variances (ANOVA), with repeated measures on the last factor, were conducted to determine effect of method groups (MCAI, TI, CI) and measures (pre-test, post-test, re-test) on knowledge test. Paired samples t-test analyses were conducted to measure students' attitude towards the MCAI and TI methods. Post-test results indicated no significant differences between the groups concerning the written test. Nevertheless, the attitude test scores of the CI group were more favourable to MCAI method than the TI method. Retention test results showed that groups retained the knowledge acquisition. However, the combine method of instruction tended to be the most effective on cognitive learning.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)167-183
Number of pages17
JournalEducation and Information Technologies
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2008


  • Attitude
  • Basketball
  • Cognitive learning
  • Instructional technology
  • Multimedia software
  • Physical education
  • Traditional instruction


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