The demographic, laboratory and genetic factors associated with long Covid-19 syndrome: a case–control study

Ensiye Torki, Fahimeh Hoseininasab, Marjan Moradi, Ramin Sami, Mark J.M. Sullman, Hamed Fouladseresht

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Long Covid-19 syndrome (LCS) manifests with a wide range of clinical symptoms, yet the factors associated with LCS remain poorly understood. The current study aimed to investigate the relationships that demographic characteristics, clinical history, laboratory indicators, and the frequency of HLA-I alleles have with the likelihood of developing LCS. We extracted the demographic characteristics and clinical histories from the medical records of 88 LCS cases (LCS+ group) and 96 individuals without LCS (LCS group). Furthermore, we evaluated the clinical symptoms, serum levels of interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α, laboratory parameters, and the frequencies of HLA-I alleles. Following this we used multiple logistic regression to investigate the association these variables had with LCS. Subjects in the LCS+ group were more likely to have experienced severe Covid-19 symptoms and had higher body mass index (BMI), white blood cell, lymphocyte counts, C-reactive protein (CRP), and IL-6 levels than those in the LCS group (for all: P < 0.05). Moreover, the frequencies of the HLA-A*11, -B*14, -B*38, -B*50, and -C*07 alleles were higher in the LCS+ group (for all: P < 0.05). After adjusting for the most important variables, the likelihood of suffering from LCS was significantly associated with BMI, CRP, IL-6, the HLA-A*11, and -C*07 alleles, as well as a positive history of severe Covid-19 (for all: P < 0.05). Our study showed that a history of severe Covid-19 during the acute phase of the disease, the HLA-A*11, and -C*07 alleles, higher BMI, as well as elevated serum CRP and IL-6 levels, were all associated with an increased likelihood of LCS.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1
JournalClinical and Experimental Medicine
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2024


  • HLA class I
  • Interleukin-6
  • Long Covid-19 syndrome
  • Severity


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