Allergies are a common and increasing health problem affecting millions of people worldwide. This increase is attributed to genetic predisposition, air pollution, climate change, lack of physical activity, and alterations in eating habits. The Mediterranean diet (MD), which includes a lot of fruits and vegetables, whole grains, legumes, nuts, olive oil, and fish, has been linked to a variety of health benefits, including a lower risk of chronic and allergic disease. This paper explores the effects of the dietary components of the MD on food allergies. Electronic databases PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct, and EBSCO were used to conduct this systematic review. Out of 696 studies initially identified, five human and four animal studies were included. Risk of bias was determined using the Office of Health Assessment and Translation tool. In human studies, when the intervention was given during pregnancy and lactation, a beneficial effect was observed. When the intervention was given during pregnancy and until birth or to the infant for six months, no effect was observed. The animal studies indicated a beneficial effect between the food components of the MD and food allergies. Although the results are promising, the limited number of studies highlights the need for more research.
- food allergies
- long-chain omega-3 fatty acids
- Mediterranean diet
- olive oil