The aim of present study was to investigate the type of feedback (observation of a videotaped expert model, videotaped expert model plus self-monitoring observation or traditional feedback-only verbal instructions on skill elements) that will affect the performance and learning of the technique and outcome on volleyball pass skill of novice students/athletes. The second aim was to check if athletes were task or ego oriented, which means if they were intrinsic or extrinsic motivated. Participants were sixty three high school students of age 12-15 (Μ=13.1, SD= 0.89), without any experience on volleyball. The students were divided in three groups, expert plus self-modeling observation group, expert modeling group, and control group/verbal feedback. Quantitative and qualitative evaluations of the participants’ performance were used, through three measurements (pre, post intervention and retention test one week after the posttest). Results indicated that participants who observed videotaped expert model plus self-monitoring were significantly improved, concerning the technical execution and also the outcome of the pass skill. Participants of expert modeling group were also improved their technique and the outcome of pass skill than participants of control group who had the least improvement of all the groups. Concerning the task and ego orientation the results revealed that participants of experimental groups were better in task orientation than the control group, after the intervention program. It seems that this particular method of feedback using observation and verbal instructions, helps participants to perform and learn the pass skill and also motivates them to “task” (compete and practice). This method of feedback and correction of errors could be useful for teacher of physical education and coaches because help students/athletes not only to learn the skill but also to keep them motivated on their sport.
- Ego orientation
- Pass skill