The effect of modeling and verbal feedback on skill learning

G. Tzetzis, K. Mantis, E. Zachopoulou, E. Kioumourtzoglou

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Citations (Scopus)


This experiment investigated the effects of implementing different instruction strategies with the use of video and KP (knowledge of performance) on the acquisition and retention of the form and outcome of motor skills in skiing. Seventy five undergraduate students were randomly assigned to three (ns=25) groups; (a) a group observed a video of a skilled model with attention focusing cues and received the traditional instruction (KP), (b) a second group observed a video of their performance with error correction cues and also received the traditional instruction (KP) and (c) a control group received only the traditional instruction (KP). Subjects participated in a ski course on a mountain for five days and all groups observed a video twice a day during the breaks and also received the same 3 practice sessions a day, of three ski skills with three practice exercises for every skill. The duration of each practice session lasted 45min. Acquisition and retention (24 hours) later of these three skiing skills (turning, climbing, stopping) was measured. A multivariate analysis of variance (3×2) with repeated measures on the last factor indicated that the combination of video and modeling presentation with KP was an important tool assisting learners to become proficient at ski skills (turning and stopping) and improved their performance. Observing a model provides information that facilitates the development of appropriate coordination patterns of limb and body movements for performing the skill. All groups received KP information which contains information useful in developing an appropriate movement pattern and lead to improved forms The three instruction groups did not differ on the form scores.. There can be a great deal of redundancy in the different sources of information to the learner. This suggests that it is necessary to identify what information can be obtained by each source and the uniqueness of information from each source. Research in real world settings and with skills of different complexity is recommended.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)137-141
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Human Movement Studies
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1999


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