The Effect of Spinal Asymmetries on Physical Fitness Parameters in Young Elite Soccer Players

Eleni Theodorou, Marios Christou, Andreas Apostolidis, Marios Tryfonidis, Nikolaos Zaras, Marios Hadjicharalambous

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The purpose of the study was to examine the effect of spinal asymmetries on specific physical fitness parameters in young elite soccer players. Fifty male soccer players, all members of the under 17 (U17) and 15 (U15) National teams of Cyprus, were initially evaluated for thoracic kyphosis, lumbar lordosis and scoliosis asymmetries. Based on the spinal asymmetries’ initial evaluation, soccer players were categorized into the asymmetry group (AG) and normal group (NG) per spinal asymmetry. Hamstring and lower-back flexibility, countermovement jump (CMJ) and lower body isokinetic maximum force were evaluated between AG and NG. CMJ with arm swing was lower in kyphotic posture AG compared with the NG (AG: 41.70 ± 3.59 cm, NG: 44.40 ± 4.34 cm; p = 0.028). Single leg CMJ was lower in both legs in scoliotic posture AG compared with the NG (right: AG: 17.42 ± 1.86 cm, NG: 19.16 ± 2.42 cm, p = 0.008, left: AG: 17.54 ± 1.33 cm, NG: 19.97 ± 2.91 cm; p = 0.002). Sit-and-reach flexibility was lower in scoliotic posture AG (AG: 20.44 ± 5.76 cm, NG: 24.82 ± 6.83 cm; p = 0.024) and higher in lordotic posture AG (AG: 25.95 ± 6.59 cm, NG: 21.73 ± 6.45 cm; p = 0.04) both compared with the NG. No significant difference was found for quadriceps and hamstrings concentric peak torque between the AG and NG (p > 0.05). The current study revealed that kyphotic and scoliotic posture asymmetries deteriorate neuromuscular explosiveness performance and diminish lower limbs’ flexibility in young International-level soccer players.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2497
Pages (from-to)1-10
Number of pages10
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2022


  • body posture
  • countermovement jump
  • isokinetic power
  • sit-and-reach flexibility


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