The ESHRE/ESGE consensus on the classification of female genital tract congenital anomalies

Grigoris F. Grimbizis, Stephan Gordts, Attilio Di Spiezio Sardo, Sara Brucker, Carlo De Angelis, Marco Gergolet, Tin Chiu Li, Vasilios Tanos, Hans Brölmann, Luca Gianaroli, Rudi Campo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

241 Citations (Scopus)


STUDY QUESTIONWhat classification system is more suitable for the accurate, clear, simple and related to the clinical management categorization of female genital anomalies?SUMMARY ANSWERThe new ESHRE/ESGE classification system of female genital anomalies is presented.WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADYCongenital malformations of the female genital tract are common miscellaneous deviations from normal anatomy with health and reproductive consequences. Until now, three systems have been proposed for their categorization but all of them are associated with serious limitations.STUDY DESIGN, SIZE AND DURATIONThe European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology (ESHRE) and the European Society for Gynaecological Endoscopy (ESGE) have established a common Working Group, under the name CONUTA (CONgenital UTerine Anomalies), with the goal of developing a new updated classification system. A scientific committee (SC) has been appointed to run the project, looking also for consensus within the scientists working in the field.PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODSThe new system is designed and developed based on (i) scientific research through critical review of current proposals and preparation of an initial proposal for discussion between the experts, (ii) consensus measurement among the experts through the use of the DELPHI procedure and (iii) consensus development by the SC, taking into account the results of the DELPHI procedure and the comments of the experts. Almost 90 participants took part in the process of development of the ESHRE/ESGE classification system, contributing with their structured answers and comments.MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCEThe ESHRE/ESGE classification system is based on anatomy. Anomalies are classified into the following main classes, expressing uterine anatomical deviations deriving from the same embryological origin: U0, normal uterus; U1, dysmorphic uterus; U2, septate uterus; U3, bicorporeal uterus; U4, hemi-uterus; U5, aplastic uterus; U6, for still unclassified cases. Main classes have been divided into sub-classes expressing anatomical varieties with clinical significance. Cervical and vaginal anomalies are classified independently into sub-classes having clinical significance.LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTIONThe ESHRE/ESGE classification of female genital anomalies seems to fulfill the expectations and the needs of the experts in the field, but its clinical value needs to be proved in everyday practice.WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGSThe ESHRE/ESGE classification system of female genital anomalies could be used as a starting point for the development of guidelines for their diagnosis and treatment.STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S)None.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2032-2044
Number of pages13
JournalHuman Reproduction
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2013


  • anatomy
  • classification system
  • female tract

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'The ESHRE/ESGE consensus on the classification of female genital tract congenital anomalies'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

  • Cite this

    Grimbizis, G. F., Gordts, S., Di Spiezio Sardo, A., Brucker, S., De Angelis, C., Gergolet, M., Li, T. C., Tanos, V., Brölmann, H., Gianaroli, L., & Campo, R. (2013). The ESHRE/ESGE consensus on the classification of female genital tract congenital anomalies. Human Reproduction, 28(8), 2032-2044.