The Role of Hysteroscopy in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Adenomyosis

Attilio Di Spiezio Sardo, Gloria Calagna, Fabrizia Santangelo, Brunella Zizolfi, Vasilis Tanos, Antonino Perino, Rudy Leon De Wilde

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

21 Citations (Scopus)


Uterine adenomyosis is a common gynecologic disorder in women of reproductive age, characterized by the presence of ectopic endometrial glands and stroma within the myometrium. Dysmenorrhea, abnormal uterine bleeding, chronic pelvic pain, and deep dyspareunia are common symptoms of this pathological condition. However, adenomyosis is often an incidental finding in specimens obtained from hysterectomy or uterine biopsies. The recent evolution of diagnostic imaging techniques, such as transvaginal sonography, hysterosalpingography, and magnetic resonance imaging, has contributed to improving accuracy in the identification of this pathology. Hysteroscopy offers the advantage of direct visualization of the uterine cavity while giving the option of collecting histological biopsy samples under visual control. Hysteroscopy is not a first-line treatment approach for adenomyosis and it represents a viable option only in selected cases of focal or diffuse "superficial" forms. During office hysteroscopy, it is possible to enucleate superficial focal adenomyomas or to evacuate cystic haemorrhagic lesions of less than 1.5 cm in diameter. Instead, resectoscopic treatment is indicated in cases of superficial adenomyotic nodules > 1.5 cm in size and for diffuse superficial adenomyosis. Finally, endometrial ablation may be performed with the additional removal of the underlying myometrium.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2518396
JournalBioMed Research International
Publication statusPublished - 2017


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