The second law of systems

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7 Citations (Scopus)


This paper asserts that the Second Law of Thermodynamics (SLT) despite holding true in all laboratory tests heretofore conducted, cannot, by itself, explain the hierarchical universe. By examination of the existing evidence, the view will be supported that the exact opposite of the SLT is as natural as the SLT itself. This view, or principle, is called the Second Law of Systems (SLS), namely, that things tend to become more and more orderly if they are left to themselves. The theoretical and practical implications of accepting the SLS and establishing its coexistence with the SLT are evidently tremendous. The exclusive acceptance of the SLT has given scientific thought a pessimistic cast which will no longer prevail if the SLS is valid. Moreover, studying the complicated mechanisms giving rise to SLS could lead to the building of systems with similar properties, that is bring about systems exhibiting true self-adaptive properties.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-12
Number of pages12
JournalInternational Journal of General Systems
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 1977


  • entropy
  • general systems
  • Organization
  • second law of thermodynamics
  • stability theory

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