Purpose: Xenobiotic metabolism is related to the interplay between diet and breast cancer (BC) risk. This involves detoxification enzymes, which are polymorphic and metabolise various dietary metabolites. An important characteristic of this pathway is that chemoprotective micronutrients can act not only as substrates but also as inducers for these enzymes. We investigated whether functional GSTP1 (p.Ile105Val-rs1695), NAT2 (590G>A-rs1799930) SNPs and GSTM1 and GSTT1 deletion polymorphisms could modulate the effect of the Mediterranean diet (MD) on BC risk, in Greek-Cypriot women. Methods: Genotyping was performed on women from the MASTOS case–control study of BC in Cyprus. A 32-item food-frequency questionnaire was used to obtain dietary intake information. A dietary pattern, which closely resembles the MD (high loadings of vegetables, fruit, legumes and fish), was previously derived with principal component analysis and was used as our dietary variable. Results: GSTT1 null genotype increased BC risk compared with the homozygous non-null GSTT1 genotype (OR 1.21, 95 % CI 1.01–1.45). Increasing adherence to the MD reduced BC risk in women with at least one GSTP1 Ile allele (OR for Ile/Ile = 0.84, 95 % CI 0.74–0.95, for Ile/Val = 0.73, 95 % CI 0.62–0.85) or one NAT2 590G allele (OR for 590 GG = 0.73, 95 % CI 0.63–0.83, for 590 GA = 0.81, 95 % CI 0.70–0.94). p interaction values were not, however, statistically significant. Conclusion: The homozygous null GSTT1 genotype could be a risk allele for BC among Greek-Cypriot women. The anticarcinogenic effects of the high adherence to MD against BC risk could also be further enhanced when combined with the wild-type alleles of the detoxification GSTP1 or NAT2 SNPs.
- Breast cancer
- Mediterranean diet