Training models and status of clinical neuropsychologists in Europe: Results of a survey on 30 countries

Laura Hokkanen, Sandra Lettner, Fernando Barbosa, Marios Constantinou, Lauren Harper, Erich Kasten, Sara Mondini, Bengt Persson, Nataliya Varako, Erik Hessen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objective: The aims of the study were to analyze the current European situation of specialist education and training within clinical neuropsychology, and the legal and professional status of clinical neuropsychologists in different European countries. Method: An online survey was prepared in 2016 by a Task Force established by the European Federation of Psychological Associations, and representatives of 30 countries gave their responses. Response rate was 76%. Results: Only three countries were reported to regulate the title of clinical neuropsychologist as well as the education and practice of clinical neuropsychologists by law. The most common university degree required to practice clinical neuropsychology was the master’s degree; a doctoral degree was required in two countries. The length of the specialist education after the master’s degree varied between 12 and 60 months. In one third of the countries, no commonly agreed upon model for specialist education existed. A more systematic training model and a longer duration of training were associated with independence in the work of clinical neuropsychologists. Conclusions: As legal regulation is mostly absent and training models differ, those actively practicing clinical neuropsychology in Europe have a very heterogeneous educational background and skill level. There is a need for a European standardization of specialist training in clinical neuropsychology. Guiding principles for establishing the common core requirements are presented.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)32-56
Number of pages25
JournalClinical Neuropsychologist
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2 Jan 2019


  • Clinical neuropsychology
  • Europe
  • legal regulation
  • specialist education
  • training


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