Transformative Quality in Higher Education Institutions (HEIs): Conceptualisation, scale development and validation

Seerat Kaur Gill, Amandeep Dhir, Gurparkash Singh, Demetris Vrontis

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


    With the increasing post-massification of higher education institutions (HEIs), access-providing business schools (vs elite educational institutions) continue to rank at the bottom in terms of quality. This study defines and develops a measure of quality in the context of access-providing business schools in a developing country. Access-providing private business schools face competing challenges of balancing inclusiveness and access with excellence and quality. Pursuing inclusiveness and access alongside excellence and quality seems a utopian ideal. However, this study propounds transformative quality as key for addressing these conflicting issues, which have long impacted post-massification and continue to have a grave effect post-pandemic. We propose a five-factor, 27-item scale of transformative quality (TRFQ). We validated the proposed scale through three studies exploring the perspectives of front-line faculty members representing 25 business schools from 10 major cities in India. The study results indicate that TRFQ comprises five dimensions such as critical confidence, problem-solving skills for approach-avoidance, overall awareness, overcoming prejudices and skillfulness. The role of TRFQ in future research has implications and recommendations for institutional management in business schools and for policymakers.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)275-286
    Number of pages12
    JournalJournal of Business Research
    Publication statusPublished - Jan 2022


    • Access
    • Business schools
    • Higher education institutions (HEIs)
    • Post-massification
    • Quality
    • Transformative quality


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