UAV Trajectory Optimisation in Smart Cities using Modified A* Algorithm Combined with Haversine and Vincenty Formulas

Andreas Andreou, Constandinos X. Mavromoustakis, Jordi Mongay Batalla, Evangelos K. Markakis, George Mastorakis, Shahid Mumtaz

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


    It is anticipated that the backbone of Smart Cities concerning automation and networking will be formed by Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in the imminent future. Therefore, our research focuses on developing advanced microcontrollers embedded with Artificial Intelligence techniques for self-governing Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. The main objective of this research was to enable full automation for the execution of flight paths with non-trivial sequences that will be performed with centimetre-level accuracy. Also, by utilising dynamic flight plans and trajectories, we aim to secure autonomous aviation based on norms, with control loops and fundamental constraints. More specifically, we evolved a novel algorithmic technique for trajectory optimisation, which deploys a modification to the A* search algorithm, implemented by the Haversine formula and enhances accuracy using Vincenty's formula. Furthermore, realistic values for trajectory optimisation and obstacle avoidance were found through the implementation of a simulative investigation. The outcomes of our methodology indicate that the safety constraints associated with the integration of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in the urban environment can be significantly mitigated. Consequently, their effectiveness will be increased in realising their diverse operations and capabilities.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)1-13
    Number of pages13
    JournalIEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
    Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2023


    • air traffic control
    • air transportation
    • aircraft navigation
    • Automobiles
    • Autonomous
    • Autonomous aerial vehicles
    • Internet of Things
    • Optimization
    • Safety
    • Smart cities
    • Smart vehicles
    • Trajectory
    • Transportation
    • Unmanned aerial vehicles


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