When the third party observer of a neuropsychological evaluation is an audio-recorder

Marios Constantinou, Lee Ashendorf, Robert J. McCaffrey

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

34 Citations (Scopus)


The presence of third parties during neuropsychological evaluations is an issue of concern for contemporary neuropsychologists. Previous studies have reported that the presence of an observer during neuropsychological testing alters the performance of individuals under evaluation. The present study sought to investigate whether audio-recording affects the neuropsychological test performance of individuals in the same way that third party observation does. In the presence of an audio-recorder the performance of the participants on memory tests declined. Performance on motor tests, on the other hand, was not affected by the presence of an audio-recorder. The implications of these findings in forensic neuropsychological evaluations are discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)407-412
Number of pages6
JournalClinical Neuropsychologist
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2002


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